Un Peace Agreements

40 For an overview of interstate wars since 1990, see Monty, G. Marshall- Ted, Robert Gurr, Peace And Conflict 2005: A Global Survey Of Armed Conflicts, Self-Determination Movements, And Democracy 11-12 (2005), available from (references of five intergovernmental conflicts, most of which are related to internal conflicts and follow to some extent similar patterns of peace agreements). All these restrictions mean that a strong emphasis on peace agreements can sometimes lock down UN peacekeeping operations in conditions that do not serve the best interests of conflict transformation. Too narrow a focus on peace agreements could lead peace operations to miss opportunities to take early action against violent conflicts whose actors or dysfunctions have not been included in the peace process. Even if the countries that are signatories to a peace agreement respect their commitments, this may not be enough to end the violence if the leaders do not clean up enough and control their armed forces. If the peace agreement gets bogged down or disintegrates, it can leave the mission in a position of weakness and without clear direction. 188 See e.B. DPA, supra 41, Appendix 7, art. 1; Burundi Peace Agreement, supra note 29, Protocol IV, Ch. 3, art.

17; Quadripartite Agreement on Voluntary Return of Refugees and Displaced Persons, Georgia Abchkhazie-Russ.-UNHCR, 4 April 1994, available at ACCORD, p. 53; Comprehensive Peace Agreement, 18 August 2003, Liber.-Liberia United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD) Movement for Democracy in Liberia (MODEL) – political parties, art. 12 [the Liberia Peace Agreement]; Cotonou Agreement, 25 July 1993, Liber, interim gov`t-National Patriotic Front of Liber .-United Liber, for Democracy- ECOWAS-UN, pt. Ill, F, art. 18, UN Doc. S/26272 (1993); Economic Community of West African States Six-month peace plan for Sierra Leone (23 October 1997-22 April 1998), 23 October 1997, 23 October 1997, Cedeao-Armes Revolutionary Revolution regime of Sierra Leone-OAU, art. 4. These last three agreements are available online .

25 See, for example. B the early agreements in South Africa between the African National Congress (ANC) and the National Party of Southern Africa (SAG) and/or Inkatha (IFP), which gradually address common commitments to end violence (Groote Schuur Minute, 4 May 1990, ANC-SAG); End of armed actions and verification of the state of emergency (Pretoria Minute, August 6, 1990, ANC-SAG); And the implementation of anti-violence measures and the stabilization of peace (Royal Hotel Minute, January 29, 1991, ANC-IFP; DF Malan Accord, February 12, 1991, ANC-SAG). These documents are available online at , with the exception of the Royal Hotel Minute, which is reproduced in the South African Institute of Race Relations Survey 1991/92, about E, with 519 (1992). Another famous example would be the series of peace agreements known as the peace of Westphalia. It has initiated modern diplomacy that integrates the modern system of nation-states. Subsequent wars were no longer about religion, but about state issues. This encouraged the Catholic and Protestant powers to ally themselves, which led to a series of important realignments. 223 See id. 2651-54 (like the Oslo Accords, Koh asserts that transnational legal processes have linked Netanyahu`s anti-peace process to the Oslo framework, to the point where he even signed and complied with another agreement).